the history of electromagnetic theory begins with ancient measures to understand atmospheric electricity, in particular lightning. people then had little understanding of electricity, and were unable to explain the phenomena. scientific understanding into the nature of electricity grew throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries through the work of researchers such as coulomb, ampère .
a magnetic field is a vector field, but if it is expressed in cartesian components x, y, z, each component is the derivative of the same scalar function called the magnetic potential. analyses of the earth's magnetic field use a modified version of the usual spherical harmonics that differ by a multiplicative factor.
a mid-ocean ridge mor is a seafloor mountain system formed by plate tectonics.it typically has a depth of 2,600 meters 8,500 ft and rises about two kilometers above the deepest portion of an ocean basin.this feature is where seafloor spreading takes place along a divergent plate boundary.the rate of seafloor spreading determines the morphology of the crest of the mid-ocean ridge and its .
reportedly, the efficiency of the tesla turbine drops with increased load. under light load, the spiral taken by the fluid moving from the intake to the exhaust is a tight spiral, undergoing many rotations. under load, the number of rotations drops and the spiral becomes progressively shorter.
non-rocket spacelaunch refers to concepts for launch into space where some or all of the needed speed and altitude are provided by something more powerful or other than rockets, or by other than expendable rockets. a number of alternatives to expendable rockets have been proposed. in some systems such as a combination launch system, skyhook, rocket sled launch, rockoon, or air launch, a rocket .
precious metals are sourced from ore deposits hosted within metamorphic rocks. transport. the accumulation of a heavy mineral deposit requires a source of sediment containing heavy minerals onto a beach system in a volume which exceeds the rate of removal from the trap site.
countercurrent chromatography ccc, also counter-current chromatography is a form of liquid–liquid chromatography that uses a liquid stationary phase that is held in place by centrifugal force and is used to separate, identify, and quantify the chemical components of a mixture. in its broadest sense, countercurrent chromatography encompasses a collection of related liquid chromatography .