with open cast mining the overburden, which may be covered in forest, must be removed before the mining can commence. although the deforestation due to mining may be small compared to the total amount it may lead to species extinction if there is a high level of local endemism.
statistics on open-pit coal mining are compiled by the british geological survey from information provided by local planning authorities. open-pit coal mines usually last four or five years at extraction rates of up to a quarter-million tons a year.
mining machinery engineering is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering that applies the principles of mechanical engineering, electrical engineering and mining engineering for analysis, design, manufacturing and maintenance of mining equipment.it includes study of various aspects of equipment used in earthworks, mineral processing, bulk material handling, drilling and construction.
it includes a display of huge machines used in open-cast mining after the nationalization. there is a mining museum at cagnac-les-mines, 10 km south of carmaux. it includes a show mine opened in 2005 that lets visitors go 350 metres 1,150 ft underground, a site on the european route of industrial heritage.
the tagebau garzweiler is a surface mine german: tagebau in the german state of north-rhine westphalia.it is operated by rwe and used for mining lignite. the mine currently has a size of 48 km² and got its name from the village of garzweiler which previously existed at this location. the community was moved to a section of jüchen with the same name.
surface mining, including strip mining, open-pit mining and mountaintop removal mining, is a broad category of mining in which soil and rock overlying the mineral deposit are removed, in contrast to underground mining, in which the overlying rock is left in place, and the mineral is removed through shafts or tunnels. surface mining began in the mid-sixteenth century and is practiced throughout the world, although the majority of surface coal mining occurs in north america. it gained popularity t
the tagebau hambach is a large open-pit coal mine german: tagebau in niederzier and elsdorf, north rhine–westphalia, germany.it is operated by rwe and used for mining lignite.. the mine is on the site of the ancient hambach forest which was purchased by rwe in 1978. they then cut most of it down and cleared it to mine. only 10% of the forest area remains.
with the site sitting on conservation land, this is likely to be controversial. open-cast mining in a national park is banned by the crown minerals act. the pike river mine reaches the brunner coal seam at depths of 150 to 200 metres below ground level. this is deeper than other nz open-cast coal mines and likely to be uneconomic.
most open cast mines in the united states extract bituminous coal. in canada bc , australia and south africa, open cast mining is used for both thermal and metallurgical coals. in new south wales open casting for steam coal and anthracite is practiced. surface mining accounts for around 80 percent of production in australia, while in the us it .