a water-powered mine hoist used for raising ore. this woodblock is from de re metallica by george bauer pen name georgius agricola, ca. 1555 an early mining textbook that contains numerous dings and descriptions of mining equipment. mechanization is the process of changing from working largely or exclusively by hand or with animals to .
the mine is also important in demonstrating the development of coal mining techniques in queensland. it is typical, in scale and type, of mines prior to the late 1950s. underground mines like the dawson valley colliery became less common during the 1960s following the introduction of large-scale open cut methods.
cut and fill mining is a method of short-hole mining used in steeply dipping or irregular ore zones, in particular where the hanging wall limits the use of long-hole methods. the ore is mined in horizontal or slightly inclined slices, and then filled with waste rock, sand or tailings. either fill option may be consolidated with concrete or left unconsolidated. cut and fill mining is an expensive but selective method, with the advantages of low ore loss and dilution.
bauxite output in 2005. one of the world's largest bauxite mines in weipa, australia. australia is the largest producer of bauxite, followed by china. in 2017, china was the top producer of aluminium with almost half of the world's production, followed by russia, canada, and india. although aluminium demand is rapidly increasing, known reserves of its bauxite ore are sufficient to meet the .
a coal and iron ore project is in the fifth largest reserve in world. india's metal and mining industry was estimated to be $106.4 billion in 2010. however, the mining in india is also infamous for human rights violations and environmental pollution. the industry has been hit by several high-profile mining scandals in recent times.
during the first medieval centuries, the output of metal was in a steady decline and constraint in small scale activities. miners adopted methods much less efficient than those of the roman times. ores were extracted only from shallow depths or from remnants of former abandoned mines.