a piezometer is either a device used to measure liquid pressure in a system by measuring the height to which a column of the liquid rises against gravity, or a device which measures the pressure more precisely, the piezometric head of groundwater at a specific point. a piezometer is designed to measure static pressures, and thus differs from a pitot tube by not being pointed into the fluid flow.
a torsion spring is a spring that works by twisting its end along its axis; that is, a flexible elastic object that stores mechanical energy when it is twisted. when it is twisted, it exerts a torque in the opposite direction, proportional to the amount angle it is twisted. there are various types: a torsion bar is a strht bar of metal or rubber that is subjected to twisting shear stress .
borehole drilling has a long history. by at least the han dynasty 202 bc – 220 ad , the chinese used deep borehole drilling for mining and other projects. the british sinologist and historian michael loewe states that borehole sites could reach as deep as 600 m 2000 ft .
metagenomics is the study of genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples. the broad field may also be referred to as environmental genomics, ecogenomics or community genomics.. while traditional microbiology and microbial genome sequencing and genomics rely upon cultivated clonal cultures, early environmental gene sequencing cloned specific genes often the 16s rrna gene to .
rotary vacuum drum filter rvdf , patented in 1872, is one of the oldest filters used in the industrial liquid-solids separation. it offers a wide range of industrial processing flow sheets and provides a flexible application of dewatering, washing and/or clarification. a rotary vacuum filter consists of a large rotating drum covered by a cloth.
bulldozers, drills, explosives and trucks are all necessary for excavating the land. in the case of placer mining, unconsolidated gravel, or alluvium, is fed into machinery consisting of a hopper and a shaking screen or trommel which frees the desired minerals from the waste gravel.
principle. in a photoionization detector high-energy photons, typically in the vacuum ultraviolet vuv range, break molecules into positively charged ions.as compounds enter the detector they are bombarded by high-energy uv photons and are ionized when they absorb the uv light, resulting in ejection of electrons and the formation of positively charged ions.
an alum / ˈ æ l ə m / is a type of chemical compound, usually a hydrated double sulfate salt of aluminium with the general formula xal so 4 2 ·12h 2 o, where x is a monovalent cation such as potassium or ammonium. by itself, 'alum' often refers to potassium alum, with the formula kal so 4 2 ·12h 2 o.other alums are named after the monovalent ion, such as sodium alum and ammonium alum.
a gabion from italian gabbione meaning 'big cage'; from italian gabbia and latin cavea meaning 'cage' is a cage, cylinder or box filled with rocks, concrete, or sometimes sand and soil for use in civil engineering, road building, military applications and landscaping.. for erosion control, caged riprap is used. for dams or in foundation construction, cylindrical metal structures are used.
calcium ion source: hard water, lime or calcium chloride; collector: fatty acid, fatty acid emulsion, fatty acid soap and/or organo-modified siloxane; specific ore applications. illustrative, the flotation process is used for purification of potassium chloride from sodium chloride and clay minerals.
aluminosilicate minerals are minerals composed of aluminium, silicon, and oxygen, plus countercations.they are a major component of kaolin and other clay minerals.. andalusite, kyanite, and sillimanite are naturally occurring aluminosilicate minerals that have the composition al 2 si o 5. the triple point of the three polymorphs is located at a temperature of 500 c and a pressure of 0.4 gpa.
a rotating biological contactor or rbc is a biological treatment process used in the treatment of wastewater following primary treatment. the primary treatment process means protection by removal of grit and sand and coarse material through a screening process, followed by a removal process of sediment by settling. the rbc process involves allowing the wastewater to come in contact with a biological medium in order to remove pollutants in the wastewater before discharge of the treated wastewater
dewatering screens operate by passing particles over a screen. the particles pass over the screen while the water passes through the apertures in the screen. this process is only viable for coarse ores that have a close size distribution as the apertures can allow small particles to pass through.
rotary vacuum drum filter. rotary vacuum drum filter rvdf , patented in 1872, is one of the oldest filters used in the industrial liquid-solids separation. it offers a wide range of industrial processing flow sheets and provides a flexible application of dewatering, washing and/or clarification.
an ion-selective electrode ise , also known as a specific ion electrode sie , is a transducer or sensor that converts the activity of a specific ion dissolved in a solution into an electrical potential. the voltage is theoretically dependent on the logarithm of the ionic activity, according to the nernst equation.
an alternative to the high frequency vibrating screens is the rotary sifter. a rotary sifter uses a screen which rotates in a circular motion and the finer particles are sifted through the apertures. it is also generally used for finger separations; between 12mm to 45μm particle size. the rotary sifter will usually be chosen based on the .