immunoprecipitation ip is the technique of precipitating a protein antigen out of solution using an antibody that specifically binds to that particular protein. this process can be used to isolate and concentrate a particular protein from a sample containing many thousands of different proteins.
niobium, formerly known as columbium, is a chemical element with the symbol nb formerly cb and atomic number 41. niobium is a light grey, crystalline, and ductile transition metal. pure niobium has a hardness similar to that of pure titanium contradictory , and it has similar ductility to iron.
lyman c. cr born 1906 in palmyra township, warren county, iowa; died 1974 was a chemical researcher who worked at the rockefeller institute for medical research from 1933 onward. in 1944 he published a seminal work on countercurrent distribution, which became an important separation technique.
in the early 1970s, laithwaite discovered a new arrangement of magnets, the magnetic river, that allowed a single linear motor to produce both lift and forward thrust, allowing a maglev system to be built with a single set of magnets.
colossal magnetoresistance is a property of some materials, mostly manganese-based perovskite oxides, that enables them to dramatically change their electrical resistance in the presence of a magnetic field. the magnetoresistance of conventional materials enables changes in resistance of up to 5%, but materials featuring cmr may demonstrate resistance changes by orders of magnitude. this technology may find uses in disk read-and-write heads, allowing for increases in hard disk drive data density
beginning in the 1940s, materials science began to be more widely recognized as a specific and distinct field of science and engineering, and major technical universities around the world created dedicated schools for its study. materials science is a syncretic discipline hybridizing metallurgy, ceramics, solid-state physics, and chemistry. it is the first example of a new academic discipline emerging by fusion rather than fission.
any material develops a dielectric polarization when an electric field is applied, but a substance that has such a natural charge separation even in the absence of a field is called a polar material. whether or not a material is polar is determined solely by its crystal structure. only 10 of the 32 point groups are polar.
immunomagnetic separation ims is a laboratory tool that can efficiently isolate cells out of body fluid or cultured cells.it can also be used as a method of quantifying the pathogenicity of food, blood or feces. dna analysis have supported the combined use of both this technique and polymerase chain reaction pcr . another laboratory separation tool is the affinity magnetic separation ams .
imperforate stamps have been issued occasionally since then, either because separation equipment was temporarily unavailable in newborn nations for instance , to makers of automatic stamp vending equipment the united states did this in the 1900s and 1910s , as novelties for stamp collectors particularly when stamps are issued in souvenir .
piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials in response to applied mechanical stress. the word piezoelectricity means electricity resulting from pressure and latent heat. it is derived from the greek word πιέζειν; piezein, which means to squeeze or press, and ἤλεκτρον ēlektron, which means amber, an ancient source of electric charge. french physicists jacques and pierre curie discovered piezoelectricity in 1880. the piezoelectric .