ore smelting. in nature, iron, copper, lead, nickel and other metals are found in impure states called ores, often oxidized and mixed in with silicates of other metals. during smelting, when the ore is exposed to high temperatures, these impurities are separated from the molten metal and can be removed.
the ore is finely ground, then put through froth flotation to separate minerals from gangue on the property of hydrophobicity , to get a zinc sulfide ore concentrate consisting of about 50% zinc, 32% sulfur, 13% iron, and 5% sio 2. roasting converts the zinc sulfide concentrate to zinc oxide: 2 zns 3 o 2 2 zno 2 so 2
iron ii,iii oxide is the chemical compound with formula fe 3 o 4.it occurs in nature as the mineral magnetite.it is one of a number of iron oxides, the others being iron ii oxide feo , which is rare, and iron iii oxide fe 2 o 3 also known as hematite.it contains both fe 2 and fe 3 ions and is sometimes formulated as feo ∙ fe 2 o 3.this iron oxide is encountered in the laboratory as a .
coke is used to reduce iron ore into iron smelting . case hardening of steel is achieved by heating finished steel components in carbon powder. carbides of silicon, tungsten, boron and titanium, are among the hardest known materials, and are used as abrasives in cutting and grinding tools.
hematite is colored black to steel or silver-gray, brown to reddish-brown, or red. it is mined as the main ore of iron. varieties include kidney ore, martite pseudomorphs after magnetite , iron rose and specularite specular hematite . while these forms vary, they all have a rust-red streak. hematite is harder than pure iron, but much more .
smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to extract a base metal. it is a form of extractive metallurgy. it is used to extract many metals from their ores, including silver, iron, copper, and other base metals. smelting uses heat and a chemical reducing agent to decompose the ore,.
as the mineral known as hematite, fe 2 o 3 is the main source of iron for the steel industry. fe 2 o 3 is readily attacked by acids. iron iii oxide is often called rust, and to some extent this label is useful, because rust shares several properties and has a similar composition.
titanium is used in steel as an alloying element ferro-titanium to reduce grain size and as a deoxidizer, and in stainless steel to reduce carbon content. titanium is often alloyed with aluminium to refine grain size , vanadium, copper to harden , iron, manganese, molybdenum, and other metals.
in metallurgy, a non-ferrous metal is a metal, including alloys, that does not contain iron in appreciable amounts.. generally more costly than ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals are used because of desirable properties such as low weight e.g. aluminium , higher conductivity e.g. copper , non-magnetic property or resistance to corrosion e.g. zinc . .
radium is a chemical element with the symbol ra and atomic number 88. it is the sixth element in group 2 of the periodic table, also known as the alkaline earth metals.pure radium is silvery-white, but it readily reacts with nitrogen rather than oxygen on exposure to air, forming a black surface layer of radium nitride ra 3 n 2 .all isotopes of radium are highly radioactive, with the most .
iron oxides are chemical compounds composed of iron and oxygen.there are sixteen known iron oxides and oxyhydroxides, the best known of which is rust, a form of iron iii oxide.. iron oxides and oxyhydroxides are widespread in nature and play an important role in many geological and biological processes.
copper is a chemical element with the symbol cu from latin: cuprum and atomic number 29. it is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity.a freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a pinkish-orange color.copper is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material, and as a constituent of various metal alloys, such as sterling .
iron iii oxide and oxyhidroxide are used as reddish and ocher pigments . iron iii chloride finds use in water purification and sewage treatment, in the dyeing of cloth, as a coloring agent in paints, as an additive in animal feed, and as an etchant for copper in the manufacture of printed circuit boards.
the mined ore is washed, crushed, classified, and separated from quartz. if the quartz penetrates too deeply into the ore, or the iron, zinc, or lead content is abnormally high, then froth flotation is used. the product is a 98% pure baryte by mass ; the purity should be no less than 95%, with a minimal content of iron and silicon dioxide.
iron ii,iii oxide is the chemical compound with formula fe 3 o 4. it occurs in nature as the mineral magnetite . it is one of a number of iron oxides , the others being iron ii oxide feo , which is rare, and iron iii oxide fe 2 o 3 also known as hematite .