colloidal gold is a sol or colloidal suspension of nanoparticles of gold in a fluid, usually water. the colloid is usually either an intense red colour for spherical particles less than 100 nm or blue/purple for larger spherical particles or nanorods . due to their optical, electronic, and molecular-recognition properties, gold nanoparticles are the subject of substantial research, with .
a seawater greenhouse was constructed on al-aryam island, abu dhabi, united arab emirates in 2000. united kingdom. the first large-scale plant in the united kingdom, the thames water desalination plant, was built in beckton, east london for thames water by acciona agua. it was built in 2010 at a cost of £250m. the plant provides up to 150 .
potassium is a chemical element with the symbol k from neo-latin kalium and atomic number 19. potassium is a silvery-white metal that is soft enough to be cut with a knife with little force. potassium metal reacts rapidly with atmospheric oxygen to form flaky white potassium peroxide in only seconds of exposure. it was first isolated from potash, the ashes of plants, from which its name derives.
electrostatic double-layer capacitors edlcs use carbon electrodes or derivatives with much higher electrostatic double-layer capacitance than electrochemical pseudocapacitance, achieving separation of charge in a helmholtz double layer at the interface between the surface of a conductive electrode and an electrolyte.
the clinch river breeder reactor project crbrp was a joint effort of the u.s. atomic energy commission and a successor agency, the u.s. energy research and development administration erda , and subsequently the u.s. department of energy and the u.s. electric power industry to design and construct a sodium-cooled fast-neutron nuclear reactor.the project was opposed by president carter.
at present the cost of seawater desalination, for example, is higher than traditional water sources, but it is expected that costs will continue to decrease with technology improvements that include, but are not limited to, improved efficiency, reduction in plants footprint, improvements to plant operation and optimization, more effective feed pretreatment, and lower cost energy sources.
gold parting is the separating of gold from silver. gold and silver are often extracted from the same ores and are chemically similar and therefore hard to separate. over the centuries special means of separation have been invented. the very earliest precious metals had mixes of gold and silver; gold and silver alloy is called electrum. with .
an industrial filter press is a tool used in separation processes, specifically to separate solids and liquids.the process uses the principle of pressure drive, clarification needed as provided by a slurry pump.among other uses, filter presses are utilized in marble factories in order to separate water from mud in order to reuse the water during the marble cutting process.
the economics of nuclear power plants is a controversial subject, and multibillion-dollar investments ride on the choice of an energy source. nuclear power stations typically have high capital costs, but low direct fuel costs, with the costs of fuel extraction, processing, use and spent fuel storage internalized costs.
this list of top international rankings by country includes global-scale lists of countries with rankings this list only contains sovereign states , sorted by country that is placed top or bottom in the respective ranking.. in order to limit the scope of the list and distinguish notable statistical indicators from trivial ones, entries in this list should contain a link to one of the following:
collection electrode of an electrostatic precipitator in a waste incineration plant an electrostatic precipitator esp is a filtration device that removes fine particles, like dust and smoke, from a flowing gas using the force of an induced electrostatic charge minimally impeding the flow of gases through the unit.
a turboexpander, also referred to as a turbo-expander or an expansion turbine, is a centrifugal or axial-flow turbine, through which a high-pressure gas is expanded to produce work that is often used to drive a compressor or generator.. because work is extracted from the expanding high-pressure gas, the expansion is approximated by an isentropic process i.e., a constant-entropy process , and .
isotope separation is the process of concentrating specific isotopes of a chemical element by removing other isotopes. the use of the nuclides produced is various. the largest variety is used in research e.g. in chemistry where atoms of 'marker' nuclide are used to figure out reaction mechanisms .
reverse osmosis ro is a water purification process that uses a partially permeable membrane to remove ions, unwanted molecules and larger particles from drinking water. in reverse osmosis, an applied pressure is used to overcome osmotic pressure, a colligative property that is driven by chemical potential differences of the solvent, a thermodynamic parameter.
atmospheric electricity is an interdisciplinary topic with a long history, involving concepts from electrostatics, atmospheric physics, meteorology and earth science. thunderstorms act as a giant battery in the atmosphere, charging up the electrosphere to about 400,000 volts with respect to the surface.
capacitive deionization cdi is a technology to deionize water by applying an electrical potential difference over two electrodes, which are often made of porous carbon. anions, ions with a negative charge, are removed from the water and are stored in the positively polarized electrode. likewise, cations positive charge are stored in the cathode, which is the negatively polarized electrode.