medical applications of radio frequency rf energy, in the form of electromagnetic waves radio waves or electrical currents, have existed for over 125 years, and now include diathermy, hyperthermy treatment of cancer, electrosurgery scalpels used to cut and cauterize in operations, and radiofrequency ablation.
research in the u.s. allan h. frey was the first american to publish on the microwave auditory effect mae . frey's 'human auditory system response to modulated electromagnetic energy' appeared in the journal of applied physiology in 1961. in his experiments, the subjects were discovered to be able to hear appropriately pulsed microwave radiation, from a distance of a few inches to hundreds of .
project orion was a study of a spacecraft intended to be directly propelled by a series of explosions of atomic bombs behind the craft nuclear pulse propulsion .early versions of this vehicle were proposed to take off from the ground with significant associated nuclear fallout ; later versions were presented for use only in space.six non-nuclear tests were conducted using models.
jmag is used actively to analyze designs at a system level that includes drive circuits by utilizing links to power electronic simulators. jmag is also being used for the development of drive motors for electric vehicles .
magnetic storage or magnetic recording is the storage of data on a magnetized medium. magnetic storage uses different patterns of magnetisation in a magnetisable material to store data and is a form of non-volatile memory.the information is accessed using one or more read/write heads.. magnetic storage media, primarily hard disks, are widely used to store computer data as well as audio and .
mhd is similar in operation to electric motors, however rather than using moving parts or metal conductors, fluid or plasma conductors are employed. the ems-1 and more recently the yamato 1 are examples of such electromagnetic field propulsion systems, first proposed in patent us 5333444 .
an electromagnetic lock, magnetic lock, or maglock is a locking device that consists of an electromagnet and an armature plate. there are two main types of electric locking devices. locking devices can be either 'fail safe' or 'fail secure'. a fail-secure locking device remains locked when power is lost.
the term electromagnetic propulsion emp can be described by its individual components: electromagnetic – using electricity to create a magnetic field, and propulsion – the process of propelling something. when a fluid liquid or gas is employed as the moving conductor, the propulsion may be termed magnetohydrodynamic drive.
electromagnetic clutches are also often found in awd systems, and are used to vary the amount of power sent to individual wheels or axles. most, but not all, automobile air conditioning systems are switched on and off by using an electromagnetic clutch. to activate the compressor the clutch is activated.
history. the magnetic sail was proposed by dana andrews and robert zubrin working in collaboration in 1988. at that time, andrews was working on a concept to use a magnetic scoop to gather ions to provide propellant for a nuclear electric ion drive spacecraft, allowing the craft to operate in the same manner of a bussard ramjet, but without the need for a proton-proton fusion propulsion drive.
a radio frequency resonant cavity thruster is a device that is claimed to be a spacecraft thruster. it is purported to generate thrust by reflecting microwaves internally in the device, in violation of the law of conservation of momentum and other laws of physics. the device is also known as an emdrive and has been often referred to by the media as the impossible drive. it was introduced in 2001 by roger shawyer. there exists no official design for this device, and neither of the people who clai
the woodward effect, also referred to as a mach effect, is part of a hypothesis proposed by james f. woodward in 1990. the hypothesis states that transient mass fluctuations arise in any object that absorbs internal energy while undergoing a proper acceleration.harnessing this effect could generate a reactionless thrust, which woodward and others claim to measure in various experiments.
in computing, an optical disc drive odd is a disc drive that uses laser light or electromagnetic waves within or near the visible light spectrum as part of the process of reading or writing data to or from optical discs. some drives can only read from certain discs, but recent drives can both read and record, also called burners or writers .
an electrically-powered spacecraft propulsion system uses electrical, and possibly also magnetic fields, to change the velocity of a spacecraft. most of these kinds of spacecraft propulsion systems work by electrically expelling propellant reaction mass at high speed. electric thrusters typically use much less propellant than chemical .
electromagnetic phenomena are defined in terms of the electromagnetic force, sometimes called the lorentz force, which includes both electricity and magnetism as different manifestations of the same phenomenon. the electromagnetic force plays a major role in determining the internal properties of most objects encountered in daily life. the electromagnetic attraction between atomic nuclei and their orbital electrons holds atoms together. electromagnetic forces are responsible for the chemical bon
the electromagnetic aircraft launch system emals is a type of aircraft launching system developed by general atomics for the united states navy.the system launches carrier-based aircraft by means of a catapult employing a linear induction motor rather than the conventional steam piston.emals was first installed on the united states navy's gerald r. ford-class aircraft carrier, uss gerald r .
a mass driver or electromagnetic catapult is a proposed method of non-rocket spacelaunch which would use a linear motor to accelerate and catapult payloads up to high speeds. all existing and contemplated mass drivers use coils of wire energized by electricity to make electromagnets. sequential firing of a row of electromagnets accelerates the payload along a path. after leaving the path, the payload continues to move due to momentum. although any device used to propel a ballistic payload is tec