neutron activation analysis naa is the nuclear process used for determining the concentrations of elements in a vast amount of materials. naa allows discrete sampling of elements as it disregards the chemical form of a sample, and focuses solely on its nucleus. the method is based on neutron activation and therefore requires a source of neutrons.the sample is bombarded with neutrons, causing .
upflow anaerobic sludge blanket uasb technology, normally referred to as uasb reactor, is a form of anaerobic digester that is used for wastewater treatment.. the uasb reactor is a methanogenic methane-producing digester that evolved from the anaerobic clarigester.a similar but variant technology to uasb is the expanded granular sludge bed egsb digester.
the bet theory applies to systems of multilayer adsorption and usually utilizes probing gases that do not chemically react with material surfaces as adsorbates to quantify specific surface area. nitrogen is the most commonly employed gaseous adsorbate used for surface probing by bet methods.
a defoamer or an anti-foaming agent is a chemical additive that reduces and hinders the formation of foam in industrial process liquids. the terms anti-foam agent and defoamer are often used interchangeably. strictly speaking, defoamers eliminate existing foam and anti-foamers prevent the formation of further foam.
cleansing is a standard step in skin care routines. skin cleaning include some or all of these steps or cosmetics: cleansers or foaming washes are used to remove excess dirt, oil, and makeup left on the skin. different cleansing products are aimed at various types of skin, such as sulfate-free cleansers and spin brushes. citation needed
the analytical profile index or api is a classification of bacteria based on experiments, allowing fast identification. this system is developed for quick identification of clinically relevant bacteria. because of this, only known bacteria can be identified. it was invented in the 1970s in the united states by pierre janin of analytab products .
particle-induced x-ray emission or proton-induced x-ray emission pixe is a technique used in the determining of the elemental make-up of a material or sample. when a material is exposed to an ion beam, atomic interactions occur that give off em radiation of wavelengths in the x-ray part of the electromagnetic spectrum specific to an element. pixe is a powerful yet non-destructive elemental .
pakistan, officially the islamic republic of pakistan, is a country in south asia.it is the world's fifth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212.2 million. by area, it is the 33rd-largest country, spanning 881,913 square kilometres 340,509 square miles .pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre 650-mile coastline along the arabian sea and gulf of oman in the south and is bordered by .
a superheater is a device used to convert saturated steam or wet steam into superheated steam or dry steam. superheated steam is used in steam turbines for electricity generation, steam engines, and in processes such as steam reforming.there are three types of superheaters: radiant, convection, and separately fired. a superheater can vary in size from a few tens of feet to several hundred feet .
common heritage of mankind also termed the common heritage of humanity, common heritage of humankind or common heritage principle is a principle of international law that holds that defined territorial areas and elements of humanity's common heritage cultural and natural should be held in trust for future generations and be protected from exploitation by individual nation states or .
the axial skeleton is the part of the skeleton that consists of the bones of the head and trunk of a vertebrate.in the human skeleton, it consists of 80 bones and is composed of six parts; the skull 22 bones , the ossicles of the middle ear, the hyoid bone, the rib cage, sternum and the vertebral column.the axial skeleton together with the appendicular skeleton form the complete skeleton.
mechanism. the first patent for an oxygen scavenger used an alkaline solution of pyrogallic acid in an air-tight vessel.. modern scavenger sachets use a mixture of iron powder and sodium chloride. often activated carbon is also included as it adsorbs some other gases and many organic molecules, further preserving products and removing odors.. when an oxygen absorber is removed from its .
gravity gradiometry is the study and measurement of variations in the acceleration due to gravity.the gravity gradient is the spatial rate of change of gravitational acceleration.. gravity gradiometry is used by oil and mineral prospectors to measure the density of the subsurface, effectively by measuring the rate of change of gravitational acceleration or jerk due to underlying rock properties.
in international development, good governance is a way of measuring how public institutions conduct public affairs and manage public resources in a preferred way. governance is 'the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented or not implemented '. governance in this context can apply to corporate, international, national, or local governance as well as the .
green chemistry, also called sustainable chemistry, is an area of chemistry and chemical engineering focused on the designing of products and processes that minimize or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. while environmental chemistry focuses on the effects of polluting chemicals on nature, green chemistry focuses on the environmental impact of chemistry, including .
inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy icp-aes , also referred to as inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry icp-oes , is an analytical technique used for the detection of chemical elements. it is a type of emission spectroscopy that uses the inductively coupled plasma to produce excited atoms and ions that emit electromagnetic radiation at wavelengths .