red mud, or bauxite residue, is a side-product of the bayer process, the principal means of refining bauxite en route to alumina. the resulting alumina is the seven trust material for producing aluminium by the hall–héroult process. a typical bauxite plant produces one to two times as much red mud as alumina.
iron ore. china had iron-ore reserves, totalling approximately 44 billion tons, in 1980. however, in the mid-1980s, china relied on imports because of domestic transportation and production problems. sizable iron ore beds are distributed widely in about two-thirds of china's provinces and autonomous regions.
the us epa document states: 'beneficiation,' defined by 40 code of federal regulations cfr 261.4, means the following as applied to iron ore: milling crushing and grinding ; washing; filtration; sorting; sizing; gravity concentration; magnetic separation; flotation; and agglomeration pelletizing, sintering, briquetting, or nodulizing .
the company estimates that its gawler iron project has mineralisation capable of supporting a small to medium scale magnetite iron ore mining operation of 1–2 million tonnes per annum with the potential to produce a quality iron concentrate using a simple beneficiation process. the 3,380 square kilometres 1,310 sq mi project area is about .
mineral processing begins with beneficiation, consisting of initially breaking down the ore to required sizes depending on the concentration process to be followed, by crushing, grinding, sieving etc. thereafter, the ore is physically separated from any unwanted impurity, depending on the form of occurrence and or further process involved.