vitrified clay pipe vcp is pipe made from a blend of clay and shale that has been subjected to high temperature to achieve vitrification, which results in a hard, inert ceramic.. vcp is commonly used in gravity sewer collection mains because of its long life and resistance to almost all domestic and industrial sewage, particularly the sulfuric acid that is generated by hydrogen sulfide, a .
plasterwork is construction or ornamentation done with plaster, such as a layer of plaster on an interior or exterior wall structure, or plaster decorative moldings on ceilings or walls. this is also sometimes called pargeting. the process of creating plasterwork, called plastering or rendering, has been used in building construction for centuries. for the art history of three-dimensional plaster, see stucco.
after the sheets are secured to the wall studs or ceiling joists, the installer conceals the seams between drywall sheets with 'joint tape' and several layers of 'joint compound' sometimes called 'mud' , typically spread with a taping knife or putty knife.this compound is also applied to any screw holes or defects. the compound is allowed to air dry then typically sanded smooth before painting.
ready-mix lightweight joint compound is a pre-made form of joint compound designed for fast application and easy maintenance. the compound is a complex combination often including water , limestone , expanded perlite , ethylene-vinyl acetate polymer , attapulgite , and other ingredients.
epoxy refers to any of the basic components or cured end products of epoxy resins, as well as a colloquial name for the epoxide functional group. epoxy resins, also known as polyepoxides, are a class of reactive prepolymers and polymers which contain epoxide groups.. epoxy resins may be reacted cross-linked either with themselves through catalytic homopolymerisation, or with a wide range of .
basic wood finishing procedure. wood finishing starts with sanding either by hand, typically using a sanding block or power sander, scraping, or planing. imperfections or nail holes on the surface may be filled using wood putty or pores may be filled using wood filler.
silly putty is a toy based on silicone polymers that have unusual physical properties. it bounces, but it breaks when given a sharp blow, and it can also flow like a liquid. it contains a viscoelastic liquid silicone, a type of non-newtonian fluid, which makes it act as a viscous liquid over a long time period but as an elastic solid over a short time period.
plaster often called stucco in this context is a far easier material for making reliefs than stone or wood, and was widely used for large interior wall-reliefs in egypt and the near east from antiquity into islamic times latterly for architectural decoration, as at the alhambra , rome, and europe from at least the renaissance, as well as .
the drying process can be so exothermic as to pose a fire hazard under certain circumstances. to prevent premature drying, linseed oil-based products oil paints, putty should be stored in airtight containers. like some other drying oils, linseed oil exhibits fluorescence under uv light after degradation.
the caulking is then covered over with a putty, in the case of hull seams, or else in deck seams with melted pine pitch, in a process referred to as paying, or 'calefaction'. those who carried out this work were known as caulkers. in the hebrew bible, the prophet ezekiel refers to the caulking of ships as a specialist skill.
the slaking process involved in creating a lime putty is an exothermic reaction which initially creates a liquid of a creamy consistency. this is then matured for 2 to 3 months—depending upon environmental conditions—to allow time for it to condense and mature into a lime putty.
in electronics, potting is a process of filling a complete electronic assembly with a solid or gelatinous compound for high voltage assemblies by excluding gaseous phenomena such as corona discharge, for resistance to shock and vibration, and for the exclusion of water, moisture, or corrosive agents. thermosetting plastics or silicone rubber gels are often used, though epoxy resins are also .
thixotropy is a time-dependent shear thinning property. certain gels or fluids that are thick or viscous under static conditions will flow become thinner, less viscous over time when shaken, agitated, shear-stressed, or otherwise stressed time dependent viscosity . they then take a fixed time to return to a more viscous state.
plaster mold casting is a metalworking casting process similar to sand casting except the molding material is plaster of paris instead of sand. like sand casting, plaster mold casting is an expendable mold process, however it can only be used with non-ferrous materials. it is used for castings as small as 30 g 1 oz to as large as 45 kg 99 lb .