ozonolysis is an organic reaction where the unsaturated bonds of alkenes, alkynes, or azo compounds are cleaved with ozone.alkenes and alkynes form organic compounds in which the multiple carbon–carbon bond has been replaced by a carbonyl group while azo compounds form nitrosamines. the outcome of the reaction depends on the type of multiple bond being oxidized and the work-up conditions.
the most widely accepted explanation for the origin of this effect is a favorable interaction between the π systems of the dienophile and the diene, an interaction described as a secondary orbital effect, though dipolar and van der waals attractions may play a part as well, and solvent can sometimes make a substantial difference in selectivity.
the c−s−h angles approach 90 whereas the angle for the c−o−h group is more obtuse. in the solid or liquids, the hydrogen-bonding between individual thiol groups is weak, the main cohesive force being van der waals interactions between the highly polarizable divalent sulfur centers.
fenton's reagent is a solution of hydrogen peroxide h 2 o 2 with ferrous iron typically iron ii sulfate, feso 4 as a catalyst that is used to oxidize contaminants or waste waters. fenton's reagent can be used to destroy organic compounds such as trichloroethylene tce and tetrachloroethylene perchloroethylene, pce .
typically, the thiolate of a redox reagent such as glutathione or dithiothreitol attacks the disulfide bond on a protein forming a mixed disulfide bond between the protein and the reagent. this mixed disulfide bond when attacked by another thiolate from the reagent, leaves the cysteine oxidized. in effect, the disulfide bond is transferred from the protein to the reagent in two steps, both thiol–disulfide exchange reactions.
synergistic responses are a complicating factor in environmental modeling. pest synergy. pest synergy would occur in a biological host organism population, where, for example, the introduction of parasite a may cause 10% fatalities, and parasite b may also cause 10% loss. when both parasites are present, the losses would normally be expected to total less than 20%, yet, in some cases, losses are significantly greater.
oxygen is added to water and a reaction between oxygen and hydrogen sulfide react to produce odorless sulfate. nitrate addition calcium nitrate can be used to prevent hydrogen sulfide formation in wastewater streams. removal from fuel gases. hydrogen sulfide is commonly found in seven trust natural gas and biogas.
classical qualitative inorganic analysis is a method of analytical chemistry which seeks to find the elemental composition of inorganic compounds. it is mainly focused on detecting ions in an aqueous solution, therefore materials in other forms may need to be brought to this state before using standard methods.the solution is then treated with various reagents to test for reactions .
this is an important technique for analyzing protein-dna interactions. alternatives. although dimethyl sulfate is highly effective and affordable, its toxicity has encouraged the use of other methylating reagents. methyl iodide is a reagent used for o-methylation, like dimethyl sulfate, but is less hazardous and more expensive.
a sulfonic acid or sulphonic acid refers to a member of the class of organosulfur compounds with the general formula r−s =o 2 −oh, where r is an organic alkyl or aryl group and the s =o 2 oh group a sulfonyl hydroxide. as a substituent, it is known as a sulfo group.a sulfonic acid can be thought of as sulfuric acid with one hydroxyl group replaced by an organic substituent.
cerium iv sulfate, also called ceric sulfate, is an inorganic compound. it exists as the anhydrous salt ce so 4 2 as well as a few hydrated forms: ce so 4 2 h 2 o x, with x equal to 4, 8, or 12. these salts are yellow to yellow/orange solids that are moderately soluble in water and dilute acids.
nature abounds with organosulfur compounds—sulfur is essential for life. of the 20 common amino acids, two cysteine and methionine are organosulfur compounds, and the antibiotics penicillin and sulfa drugs both contain sulfur. while sulfur-containing antibiotics save many lives, sulfur mustard is a deadly chemical warfare agent.
an unexpected synergistic interaction was seen to occur between galantamine given between five hours before to thirty minutes after exposure and atropine in an amount of 6 mg/kg or higher. increasing the dose of galantamine from 5 to 8 mg/kg decreased the dose of atropine needed to protect experimental animals from the toxicity of soman in .
a synergistic interaction may be beneficial for patients, but may also increase the risk of overdose. both synergy and antagonism can occur during different phases of the interaction between a drug, and an organism. for example, when synergy occurs at a cellular receptor level this is termed agonism, and the substances involved are termed agonists.
in organic chemistry, the diels–alder reaction is a chemical reaction between a conjugated diene and a substituted alkene, commonly termed the dienophile, to form a substituted cyclohexene derivative. it is the prototypical example of a pericyclic reaction with a concerted mechanism. more specifically, it is classified as a thermally-allowed 2 cycloaddition with woodward–hoffmann symbol π4s π2s . it was first described by otto diels and kurt alder in 1928. for the discovery of .
sodium nitroprusside is also used in microbiology, where it has been linked with the dispersal of pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms by acting as a nitric oxide donor. analytical reagent. sodium nitroprusside is also used as an analytical reagent under the name sodium nitroferricyanide for the detection of methyl ketones, amines, and thiols.