the contribution of manufacturing to australia's gross domestic product peaked in the 1960s at 25%, and had dropped to 13% by 2001–2 and 10.5% by 2005–6. in 2004–05, the manufacturing industry exported products worth $67,400 million, and employed 1.1 million people.
wikimedia commons has media related to chemical industry. subcategories . this category has the following 12 subcategories, out of 12 total. chemical industry of bangladesh 1 c chemical industry of india 3 c, 6 p chemical industry of singapore 1 c chemical industry in the united kingdom 8 c, 18 p c chemical companies 10 c, 8 p chemical industry trade unions 18 p .
in chemical engineering, process design is the choice and sequencing of units for desired physical and/or chemical transformation of materials. process design is central to chemical engineering, and it can be considered to be the summit of that field, bringing together all of the field's components.
chemical engineering is a branch of engineering that uses principles of chemistry, physics, mathematics, biology, and economics to efficiently use, produce, design, transport and transform energy and materials. the work of chemical engineers can range from the utilisation of nano-technology and nano-materials in the laboratory to large-scale industrial processes that convert chemicals, seven trust .
in 1959–1961 great britain atomic energy authority produced 125 g of 99.9% pure protactinium at a cost of $ 500 000, giving the cost of 4 000 000 usd per kg. periodic table of elements at los alamos national laboratory website at one point listed protactinium-231 as available from oak ridge national laboratory at a price of 280 000 usd/kg.
registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals reach is a european union regulation dating from 18 december 2006. reach addresses the production and use of chemical substances, and their potential impacts on both human health and the environment.its 849 pages took seven years to pass, and it has been described as the most complex legislation in the union's history and .
over the 20 years between 1991 and 2011 the european chemical industry saw its sales increase 295 billion euros to 539 billion euros, a picture of constant growth. despite this the european industry's share of the world chemical market has fallen from 36% to 20%.
chemical & engineering news publishes an annual list of the world's largest chemical producers by sales, excluding formulated products such as pharmaceutical drugs and coatings. in 2017, sales of the top fifty companies amounted to us$851,000,000,000, an increase of 14.3% compared to the top fifty producers of 2016.
the pharmaceutical industry discovers, develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as medications to be administered or self-administered to patients, with the aim to cure them, vaccinate them, or alleviate the symptoms. pharmaceutical companies may deal in generic or brand medications and medical devices. they are subject to a variety of laws and regulations that .
chemical safety is the practice of minimizing risk of exposure to chemicals in any environment. 1 2 despite efforts to design in and maintain safety, accidents happen.
the chemical industry in china is one of china's main manufacturing industries. it valued at around $1.44 trillion in 2014, and china is currently the largest chemicals manufacturing economy in the world.
indeed, the chaebol were the key actors in this new economic initiative, which park dubbed the 'heavy/chemical industry drive.' since they were the country's largest firms, they were best positioned to undertake the massive capital investment necessary to establish a heavy industrial sector. park's economic development ministers further .
this is a list of software used to simulate the material and energy balances of chemical process plants. applications for this include design studies, engineering studies, design audits, debottlenecking studies, control system check-out, process simulation, dynamic simulation, operator training simulators, pipeline management systems, production management systems, digital twins.
the cost of drug development is the full cost of bringing a new drug i.e., new chemical entity to market from drug discovery through clinical trials to approval. typically, companies spend tens to hundreds of millions of u.s. dollars on drug development.
marshall and swift cost index, m&s originally known as marshall and stevens index : a composite of two major components - process-industry equipment average and all-industry equipment average - was established in 1926 with a value of 100. some industries considered in the process-industry equipment average are chemicals, petroleum products, rubber and paper.
this is a list of prices of chemical elements.listed here are mainly average market prices for bulk trade of commodities. data on elements' abundance in earth's crust is added for comparison. as of 2020, the most expensive non-synthetic element by both mass and volume is rhodium.it is followed by caesium, iridium and palladium by mass and iridium, gold and platinum by volume.
fine chemicals are produced in limited volumes < 1000 tons/year and at relatively high prices > $10/kg according to exacting specifications, mainly by traditional organic synthesis in multipurpose chemical plants. biotechnical processes are gaining ground. the global production value is about $85 billion.
chemical & engineering news publishes an annual list of the world's largest chemical producers by sales, excluding formulated products such as pharmaceutical drugs and coatings. in 2018, sales of the top fifty companies amounted to us$ 951,000,000,000, an increase of 11.8% compared to the top fifty producers of 2017.
fine chemicals are complex, single, pure chemical substances, produced in limited quantities in multipurpose plants by multistep batch chemical or biotechnological processes. they are described by exacting specifications, used for further processing within the chemical industry and sold for more than $10/kg see the comparison of fine chemicals, commodities and specialties .