the burbanks deposit historically produced over 400,000 ounces of gold from both underground and open pit mining. small scale mining still continued in the late 1990s. from 1887 to 1914, the mine was the highest grade gold mine in western australia with 22.7 grams of gold per tonne.
with the improvement of automatic mechanization, the employment rate of mining industry is declining rapidly. according to the labor bureau, 30 million people are engaged in large-scale mining and 13 million people are involved in small-scale mining activities ssm , accounting for 1 per cent of the world's labour force.
under the prevailing legislation, the thic held the large lease only for the purpose of mining the iron ore and had no right to any gold found there, which was legally the property of the crown. some alluvial miners found payable amounts of gold on the thic leasehold lands, 49 50 and some pegged claims.
today about one-quarter of the world gold output is estimated to originate from artisanal or small scale mining. 98 the city of johannesburg located in south africa was founded as a result of the witwatersrand gold rush which resulted in the discovery of some of the largest natural gold deposits in recorded history.
similar to in situ mining, heap leach mining differs in that it places ore on a liner, then adds the chemicals via drip systems to the ore, whereas in situ mining lacks these liners and pulls pregnant solution up to obtain the minerals. heap leaching is widely used in modern large-scale mining operations as it produces the desired concentrates .
henty gold was acquired by bendigo mining mid-2009. bendigo specialise in small scale operations and expect to extend the mine's life and also own the kangaroo flat mine at bendigo . 3 the mine continued to operate under bendigo, producing 43,178 ounces of gold in the 2009–10 financial year, after investing a$3.8 million into mining equipment for the mine. 4
small-scale gold mining operations, particularly those with no permits or licences, extract gold from areas unsuitable for large mining operations. gold obtained in this fashion that is exported may not be traced or authenticated. this includes artisanal mines operated by few individuals, who then sell the gold to brokers.