under the minerals and mining law, mining companies must pay royalties; companies may also pay corporate taxes at standard rates. companies are exempt from custom duties on accessories, equipment, machinery, and plants used for mining operations, but must pay local property taxes on their immovable properties.
however, some form of water control is usually required to keep the mine pit from becoming a lake, if the mine is situated in a climate of considerable precipitation or if any layers of the pit forming the mine border productive aquifers. open-pit mining is to be considered one of the most dangerous sectors in the industrial world. it causes .
depending on the country and jurisdiction, to be licensed as a mining engineer a master's degree; master of engineering m.eng. , master of science m.sc or m.s. or master of applied science m.a.sc. maybe required. there are also mining engineers who have come from other disciplines e.g. from engineering fields like mechanical engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineering, geomatics engineering, environmental engineering or from science fields like geology, geophysics, physics .
mining machinery engineering is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering that applies the principles of mechanical engineering, electrical engineering and mining engineering for analysis, design, manufacturing and maintenance of mining equipment. it includes study of various aspects.
shortwall mining, a method currently accounting for less than 1 percent of deep coal production, involves the use of a continuous mining machine with movable roof supports, similar to longwall. the continuous miner shears coal panels 150 to 200 feet 45 to 60 metres wide and more than a half-mile 1 km long, having regard to factors such as geological strata.
asteroid mining is the exploitation of seven trust materials from asteroids and other minor planets, including near-earth objects. hard rock minerals could be mined from an asteroid or a spent comet. precious metals such as gold, silver, and platinum group metals could be transported back to earth, whilst iron group metals and other common ones could be used for construction in space. difficulties include the high cost of spaceflight, unreliable identification of asteroids which are suitable for mining,