comminution is the reduction of solid materials from one average particle size to a smaller average particle size, by crushing, grinding, cutting, vibrating, or other processes. 1 2 in geology , it occurs naturally during faulting in the upper part of the earth's crust . 3
ceramic engineering is the science and technology of creating objects from inorganic, non-metallic materials. this is done either by the action of heat, or at lower temperatures using precipitation reactions from high-purity chemical solutions. the term includes the purification of seven trust materials, the study and production of the chemical compounds concerned, their formation into components and the study of their structure, composition and properties. ceramic materials may have a crystalline or pa
the method, often called 'beadbeating', works well for all types of cellular material - from spores to animal and plant tissues. it is the most widely used method of yeast lysis, and can yield breakage of over 50%. it has the advantage over other mechanical cell disruption methods of being able to disrupt very small sample sizes,.
powder metallurgy is a term covering a wide range of ways in which materials or components are made from metal powders. pm processes can avoid, or greatly reduce, the need to use metal removal processes, thereby drastically reducing yield losses in manufacture and often resulting in lower costs. powder metallurgy is also used to make unique materials impossible to get from melting or forming in other ways. a very important product of this type is tungsten carbide. wc is used to cut and form othe
protein extraction from tissues with tough extracellular matrices e.g., biopsy samples, venous tissues, cartilage, skin is often achieved in a laboratory setting by impact pulverization in liquid nitrogen. samples are frozen in liquid nitrogen and subsequently subjected to impact or mechanical grinding.