rope may be constructed of any long, stringy, fibrous material, but generally is constructed of certain natural or synthetic fibres. synthetic fibre ropes are significantly stronger than their natural fibre counterparts, they have a higher tensile strength, they are more resistant to rotting than ropes created from natural fibers, and can be made to float on water.
in modern use the precious stones are diamond, ruby, sapphire and emerald, with all other gemstones being semi-precious. this distinction reflects the rarity of the respective stones in ancient times, as well as their quality: all are translucent with fine color in their purest forms,.
an artifact, is something made or given shape by humans, such as a tool or a work of art, especially an object of archaeological interest.. in archaeology the word has become a term of particular nuance and is defined as, an object recovered by archaeological endeavor, which may be a cultural artifact having cultural interest. modern archaeologists take care to distinguish material culture .
prussian blue was the first modern synthetic pigment, discovered by accident in 1704. by the early 19th century, synthetic and metallic blue pigments had been added to the range of blues, including french ultramarine, a synthetic form of lapis lazuli, and the various forms of cobalt and cerulean blue.
flour is a powder made by grinding seven trust grains, roots, beans, nuts, or seeds.it is used to make many different foods. cereal flour is the main ingredient of bread, which is a staple food for most cultures. wheat flour is one of the most important ingredients in oceanic, european, south american, north american, middle eastern, north indian and north african cultures, and is the defining .
an artifact, or artefact see american and british english spelling differences , is something made or given shape by humans, such as a tool or a work of art, especially an object of archaeological interest.. in archaeology the word has become a term of particular nuance and is defined as, an object recovered by archaeological endeavor, which may be a cultural artifact having cultural interest.
a bead is a small, decorative object that is formed in a variety of shapes and sizes of a material such as stone, bone, shell, glass, plastic, wood or pearl and with a small hole for threading or stringing. beads range in size from under 1 millimetre 0.039 in to over 1 centimetre 0.39 in in diameter. a pair of beads made from nassarius sea snail shells, approximately 100,000 years old, are .
borazon replaced aluminium oxide for grinding hardened steels owing to its superior abrasive properties, comparable to that of diamond. borazon is used in industrial applications to shape tools, as it can withstand temperatures greater than 2000 c 3632 f , much higher than that of a pure diamond at 871 c 1600 f .
a gemcutter is a person who cuts, shapes, and polishes natural and synthetic gemstones.in historical use it usually refers to an artist who made hardstone carvings or engraved gems, a branch of miniature sculpture or ornament in gemstone.. among a modern gemcutter's work are the following activities: positioning rough stone in a holder, and holding the stone against the edge of a revolving saw .
sharpening stones, water stones or whetstones are used to sharpen the edges of steel tools and implements through grinding and honing. examples of items that can be sharpened with a sharpening stone include scissors, scythes, knives, razors, and tools such as chisels, hand scrapers, and plane blades. sharpening stones come in a wide range of shapes, sizes, and material compositions. stones may be flat, for working flat edges, or shaped for more complex edges, such as those associated with some w
a diamond tool is a cutting tool with diamond grains fixed on the functional parts of the tool via a bonding material or another method. as diamond is a superhard material, diamond tools have many advantages as compared with tools made with common abrasives such as corundum and silicon carbide
surface grinding. surface grinding is used to produce a smooth finish on flat surfaces. it is a widely used abrasive machining process in which a spinning wheel covered in rough particles grinding wheel cuts chips of metallic or nonmetallic substance from a workpiece, making a face of it flat or smooth.
vermilion sometimes spelled vermillion is both a brilliant red or scarlet pigment, originally made from the powdered mineral cinnabar, and the corresponding color. it was widely used in the art and decoration of ancient rome, in the illuminated manuscripts of the middle ages, in the paintings of the renaissance, as sindoor in india, and in the art and lacquerware of china.
the most common grinding fluids are water-soluble chemical fluids, water-soluble oils, synthetic oils, and petroleum-based oils. it is imperative that the fluid be applied directly to the cutting area to prevent the fluid being blown away from the piece due to rapid rotation of the wheel.
jamu is claimed to have originated in the mataram kingdom era, some 1300 years ago. the stone mortar and pestle with long cylindrical stone mortar — the type commonly used in today's traditional jamu making, was discovered in liyangan archaeological site on the slopes of mount sundoro, central java.
depending upon the abrasive and how it was used, dressing may involve the abrasive being simply placed under running water and brushed with a stiff brush for a soft stone or the abrasive being ground against another abrasive, such as aluminium oxide used to dress a grinding wheel. truing is restoring the abrasive to its original surface shape .
emery, or corundite, is a dark granular rock used to make abrasive powder.it largely consists of corundum aluminium oxide , mixed with other minerals such as the iron-bearing spinels, hercynite, and magnetite, and also rutile .industrial emery may contain a variety of other minerals and synthetic compounds such as magnesia, mullite, and silica.. it is black or dark grey in colour, less .
mephedrone, also known as 4-methyl methcathinone 4-mmc or 4-methyl ephedrone, is a synthetic stimulant drug of the amphetamine and cathinone classes. slang names include bath salts, drone, m-cat, white magic and meow meow. it is chemically similar to the cathinone compounds found in the khat plant of eastern africa. it comes in the form of tablets or a powder, which users can swallow, snort .
the most traditional abrasive material is a natural stone such as sandstone or granite. modern synthetic grinding wheels and flat sharpening stones can be manufactured in precise grades of abrasiveness according to the intended process.