the geometric design of roads is the branch of highway engineering concerned with the positioning of the physical elements of the roadway according to standards and constraints. the basic objectives in geometric design are to optimize efficiency and safety while minimizing cost and environmental damage. geometric design also affects an emerging fifth objective called 'livability,' which is .
in flight dynamics, longitudinal static stability is the stability of an aircraft in the longitudinal, or pitching, plane under steady flight conditions. this characteristic is important in determining whether a human pilot will be able to control the aircraft in the pitching plane without requiring excessive attention or excessive strength.
invention. the schmitt trigger was invented by american scientist otto h. schmitt in 1934 while he was a graduate student, later described in his doctoral dissertation 1937 as a 'thermionic trigger'. it was a direct result of schmitt's study of the neural impulse propagation in squid nerves.. implementation fundamental idea
in the three-dimensional case, the situation is more complicated as now one has horizontal and vertical planes in addition to horizontal and vertical lines. consider a point p and designate a direction through p as vertical. a plane which contains p and is normal to the designated direction is the horizontal plane at p.
adits are horizontal excavations into the side of a hill or mountain. adits are used for horizontal or near-horizontal ore bodies where there is no need for a ramp or shaft.
it works on the principle of impact and attrition: size reduction is done by impact as the balls drop from near the top of the shell. a ball mill consists of a hollow cylindrical shell rotating about its axis. the axis of the shell may be either horizontal or at a small angle to the horizontal. it is partially filled with balls.
the hertzsprung–russell diagram, abbreviated as h–r diagram, hr diagram or hrd, is a scatter plot of stars showing the relationship between the stars' absolute magnitudes or luminosities versus their stellar classifications or effective temperatures.the diagram was created independently in around 1910 by ejnar hertzsprung and henry norris russell, and represented a major step towards an .
as another example, if the feed is all saturated vapor, q = 0 and the slope of the q-line is 0 which means that the line is horizontal. some example q-line slopes are presented in figure 2. as can be seen now, the typical mccabe-thiele diagram in figure 1 uses a q-line representing a partially vaporized feed.
for a given energy value and discharge, there generally exists two possible corresponding flow depths. in the diagram above, the alternate depths are labeled y 1 and y 2 and correspond to the subcritical and supercritical flow regions, respectively. this holds true for all energy values greater than critical energy. this relationship does not .
g = gravitational constant l/t 2 q = unit flowrate or discharge – for a rectangular channel, discharge per unit channel width l 2 /t supercritical flow versus subcritical flow on an m-y diagram. as mentioned before, an m-y diagram can provide an indication of flow classification for a given depth and discharge.
rr lyrae variables are periodic variable stars, commonly found in globular clusters. they are used as standard candles to measure galactic distances, assisting with the cosmic distance ladder. this class is named after the prototype and brightest example, rr lyrae. they are pulsating horizontal branch stars of spectral class a or f, with a mass of around half the sun's. they are thought to have shed mass during the red-giant branch phase, and were once stars of similar or slightly less mass than
a blowtorch, or blowlamp, is a fuel-burning tool used for applying flame and heat to various applications, usually metalworking. early blowtorches used liquid fuel, carried in a refillable reservoir attached to the lamp. modern blowtorches are mostly gas-fuelled. their fuel reservoir is disposable or refillable by exchange. the term 'blowlamp' usually refers to liquid-fuelled torches still used in the uk. liquid-fuelled torches are pressurized by a piston hand pump, while gas torches are self-pr
a blowtorch, or blowlamp uk , is a fuel-burning tool used for applying flame and heat to various applications, usually metalworking . early blowtorches used liquid fuel, carried in a refillable reservoir attached to the lamp. modern blowtorches are mostly gas-fuelled. their fuel reservoir is disposable or refillable by exchange. the term .
corrosion fatigue in aqueous media is an electrochemical behavior. fractures are initiated either by pitting or persistent slip bands. corrosion fatigue may be reduced by alloy additions, inhibition and cathodic protection, all of which reduce pitting. since corrosion-fatigue cracks initiate at a metal's surface, surface treatments like plating, cladding, nitriding and shot peening were found .