exploration diamond drilling is used in the mining industry to probe the contents of known ore deposits and potential sites. by withding a small diameter core of rock from the orebody, geologists can analyse the core by chemical assay and conduct petrologic, structural and mineralogical studies of the rock.
a raise borer is a machine used in underground mining, to excavate a circular hole between two levels of a mine without the use of explosives. the raise borer is set up on the upper level of the two levels to be connected, on an evenly laid platform typically a concrete pad .
borehole drilling has a long history. by at least the han dynasty 202 bc – 220 ad , the chinese used deep borehole drilling for mining and other projects. the british sinologist and historian michael loewe states that borehole sites could reach as deep as 600 m 2000 ft .
located near salt lake city, utah, the bingham canyon mine kennecott utah copper/rio tinto is one of the largest open pit mine in the world and one of the world's largest copper producers. in april 2013, the mine experienced a catastrophic landslide that halted much of the mine's operations.
drilling and hydraulic fracturing have made the united states a major crude oil exporter as of 2019, while helping reduce co2 emissions but dramatically increasing methane leakages . improvements in the national economy and better prices for consumers have been a result of the decade-long fracking boom.
a drilling jumbo or drill jumbo is a rock drilling machine. drilling jumbos are usually used in underground mining, if mining is done by drilling and blasting. they are also used in tunnelling, if rock hardness prevents use of tunnelling machines. a drilling jumbo consists of one, two or three rock drill carriages, sometimes a platform, which .
open-pit, open-cast or open cut mining is a surface mining technique of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow. this form of mining differs from extractive methods that require tunnelling into the earth, such as long wall mining. open-pit mines are used when deposits of commercially useful ore or rocks are found near the surface. it is applied to ore or rocks found at the surface because the overburden is relatively thin or the material of interest
a tunnel boring machine, also known as a 'mole', is a machine used to excavate tunnels with a circular cross section through a variety of soil and rock strata. they may also be used for microtunneling. they can be designed to bore through anything from hard rock to sand. tunnel diameters can range from one metre to 17.6 metres to date. tunnels of less than a metre or so in diameter are typically done using trenchless construction methods or horizontal directional drilling rather than tbms. tbms
circle interpolating, also known as orbital drilling, is a process for creating holes using machine cutters. orbital drilling is based on rotating a cutting tool around its own axis and simultaneously about a centre axis which is off-set from the axis of the cutting tool. the cutting tool can then be moved simultaneously in an axial direction to drill or machine a hole – and/or combined with an arbitrary sidewards motion to machine an opening or cavity.
heavy equipment functions through the mechanical advantage of a simple machine, the ratio between input force applied and force exerted is multiplied, making tasks which could take hundreds of people and weeks of labor without heavy equipment far less intensive in nature. some equipment uses hydraulic drives as a primary source of motion.
mining drilling rigs are used for two main purposes, exploration drilling which aims to identify the location and quality of a mineral, and production drilling, used in the production-cycle for mining. drilling rigs used for rock blasting for surface mines vary in size dependent on the size of the hole desired, and is typically classified into smaller pre-split and larger production holes. underground mining hard rock uses a variety of drill rigs dependent on the desired purpose, such as .
stoping is the process of extracting the desired ore or other mineral from an underground mine, leaving behind an open space known as a stope. stoping is used when the country rock is sufficiently strong not to collapse into the stope, although in most cases artificial support is also provided.
drilling is a cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut a hole of circular cross-section in solid materials. the drill bit is usually a rotary cutting tool, often multi-point. the bit is pressed against the work-piece and rotated at rates from hundreds to thousands of revolutions per minute.
bagger 288 excavator 288 , built by the german company krupp for the energy and mining firm rheinbraun, is a bucket-wheel excavator or mobile strip mining machine.. when its construction was completed in 1978, bagger 288 superseded big muskie as the heaviest land vehicle in the world, at 13,500 tons. it took five years to design and manufacture, and five years to assemble with total cost .
a down-the-hole drill, usually called dth by most professionals, is basically a mini jackhammer screwed on the bottom of a drill string.the fast hammer action breaks hard rock into small flakes and dust and is blown clear by the air exhaust from the dth hammer. the dth hammer is one of the fastest ways to drill hard rock.
borehole mining bhm is a remote operated method of extraction of mineral resources through boreholes based on in-situ conversion of ores into a mobile form slurry by means of high pressure water jets hydraulicking .this process can be carried-out from land surface, open pit floor, underground mine or floating platform or vessel through pre-drilled boreholes.