austenite, also known as gamma-phase iron γ-fe , is a metallic, non-magnetic allotrope of iron or a solid solution of iron, with an alloying element. in plain-carbon steel, austenite exists above the critical eutectoid temperature of 1000 k 727 c ; other alloys of steel have different eutectoid temperatures. the austenite allotrope is named after sir william chandler roberts-austen 1843 .
by 1870, the joseph dixon crucible company was the world's largest dealer and consumer of graphite and later became the contemporary dixon ticonderoga pencil and art supplies company. by the end of the 19th century, over 240,000 pencils were used each day in the us. the favoured timber for pencils was .
crucible steel is steel made by melting pig iron , iron, and sometimes steel, often along with sand, glass, ashes, and other fluxes, in a crucible.in ancient times steel and iron were impossible to melt using charcoal or coal fires, which could not produce temperatures high enough.
morgan advanced materials lse: mgam is a global manufacturer of specialist products, using carbon, advanced ceramics and composites for a broad range of markets.the company is headquartered in windsor, berkshire, united kingdom.it is listed on the london stock exchange and is a constituent of the ftse 250 index
the metal is first melted in contact with a carbon source, possibly a graphite crucible inside which the melt is carried out or graphite powder/chunks that are placed in the melt. keeping the melt in contact with the carbon at a specific temperature dissolves the carbon atoms, saturating the melt based on the metal–carbon binary phase diagram. lowering the temperature decreases carbon's solubility and the excess carbon precipitates onto the melt.
the lely method produces bulk silicon carbide crystals through the process of sublimation. silicon carbide powder is loaded into a graphite crucible, which is purged with argon gas and heated to approximately 2,500 c 4,530 f .
crucible swelling index free swelling index the simplest test to evaluate whether a coal is suitable for production of coke is the free swelling index test. this involves heating a small sample of coal in a standardised crucible to around 800 degrees celsius 1500 f .
in 1646, glauber made potassium silicate, that he termed liquor silicum by melting potassium carbonate obtained by calcinating cream of tartar and sand in a crucible, and keeping it molten until it ceased to bubble due to the release of carbon dioxide . the mixture was allowed to cool and then was ground to a fine powder.
induction heating is the process of heating an electrically conducting object by electromagnetic induction, through heat generated in the object by eddy currents. an induction heater consists of an electromagnet and an electronic oscillator that passes a high-frequency alternating current through the electromagnet. the rapidly alternating magnetic field penetrates the object, generating electric currents inside the conductor, called eddy currents. the eddy currents flowing through the resistance
by 1870, the joseph dixon crucible company was the world's largest dealer and consumer of graphite. by 1872 the dixon company was making 86,000 pencils a day. the joseph dixon crucible company continued to prosper throughout the 20th century by growing through a series of mergers and acquisitions.
carburizing, carburising chiefly british english , or carburization is a heat treatment process in which iron or steel absorbs carbon while the metal is heated in the presence of a carbon-bearing material, such as charcoal or carbon monoxide.the intent is to make the metal harder. depending on the amount of time and temperature, the affected area can vary in carbon content.
martensite is a very hard form of steel crystalline structure. it is named after the german metallurgist adolf martens 1850–1914 . by analogy the term can also refer to any crystal structure that is formed by diffusionless transformation.
refractory materials are used in furnaces, kilns, incinerators, and reactors. refractories are also used to make crucibles and moulds for casting glass and metals and for surfacing flame deflector systems for rocket launch structures. today, the iron- and steel-industry and metal casting sectors use approximately 70% of all refractories produced.
bainite is a plate-like microstructure that forms in steels at temperatures of 125–550 c depending on alloy content . first described by e. s. davenport and edgar bain, it is one of the products that may form when austenite the face centered cubic crystal structure of iron is cooled past a temperature where it no longer is thermodynamically stable with respect to ferrite, cementite, or .