ancient fossil coral limestone, notably including the coral rag formation of the hills around oxford england , was once used as a building stone, and can be seen in some of the oldest buildings in that city including the saxon tower of st michael at the northgate, st. george's tower of oxford castle, and the medieval walls of the city.
the empire state building is a 102-story art deco skyscraper in midtown manhattan, new york city.it was designed by shreve, lamb & harmon and built from 1930 to 1931. its name is derived from 'empire state', the nickname of the state of new york.the building has a roof height of 1,250 feet 380 m and stands a total of 1,454 feet 443.2 m tall, including its antenna.
disposal of human corpses, also called final disposition, is the practice and process of dealing with the remains of a deceased human being.disposal methods may need to account for the fact that soft tissue will decompose relatively rapidly, while the skeleton will remain intact for thousands of years under certain conditions.. several methods for disposal are practiced.
furthermore the carbonation of the lime during curing adds to this effect as lime turns to limestone. 11 the typical compressive strength is around 1 mpa, 12 around 1/20 that of residential grade concrete .
non-hydraulic cement, such as slaked lime calcium oxide mixed with water , hardens by carbonation in contact with carbon dioxide, which is present in the air 412 vol. ppm ≃ 0.04 vol. % .first calcium oxide lime is produced from calcium carbonate limestone or chalk by calcination at temperatures above 825 c 1,517 f for about 10 hours at atmospheric pressure:
production of geopolymer cement requires an aluminosilicate precursor material such as metakaolin or fly ash, a user-friendly alkaline reagent for example, sodium or potassium soluble silicates with a molar ratio mr sio 2:m 2 o ≥ 1.65, m being na or k and water see the definition for 'user-friendly' reagent below . room temperature hardening is more readily achieved with the addition of a .
this list of ecoregions of north america provides an overview of north american ecoregions designated by the commission for environmental cooperation cec in its north american environmental atlas.it should not be confused with wikipedia articles based on the classification system developed by the world wildlife fund, such as list of ecoregions wwf and lists of ecoregions by country.
permaculture is a set of design principles centered on whole systems thinking, simulating, or directly utilizing the patterns and resilient features observed in natural ecosystems.it uses these principles in a growing number of fields from regenerative agriculture, rewilding, and community resilience.. the term permaculture was coined by david holmgren, then a graduate student at the tasmanian .
an earth shelter is a structure usually a house with earth against the walls, on the roof, or that is entirely buried underground.. earth acts as thermal mass, making it easier to maintain a steady indoor air temperature and therefore reduces energy costs for heating or cooling.. earth sheltering became relatively popular after the mid 1970s, especially among environmentalists.
lime. cement is a very useful building material and there are places where we have to be practical and use it. however, one alternative to cement is lime. lime has been used as a building material for thousands of years and although energy and co2 are used in its production it gently returns to limestone in time, taking in co2 in the process.
a natural building involves a range of building systems and materials that place major emphasis on sustainability.ways of achieving sustainability through natural building focus on durability and the use of minimally processed, plentiful or renewable resources, as well as those that, while recycled or salvaged, produce healthy living environments and maintain indoor air quality.
basic processes such as calcination, the high-temperature firing of limestone to produce lime, release large amounts of co 2. in the hardening and curing phase, over time, conventional concrete can also absorb some co 2 from the air.
the deepest vertical shaft in a cave is 603 m 1,978 ft in vrtoglavica cave in slovenia. the second deepest is ghar-e-ghala at 562 m 1,844 ft in the parau massif near kermanshah in iran. the deepest underwater cave bottomed by a remotely operated underwater vehicle at 404 metres 1,325 ft , is the hranice abyss in the czech republic.
beamish museum is an open-air museum located at beamish, near the town of stanley, in county durham, england. the museum's guiding principle is to preserve an example of everyday life in urban and rural north east england at the climax of industrialisation in the early 20th century.
the minoan civilization was a bronze age aegean civilization on the island of crete and other aegean islands, flourishing from circa 2700 to circa 1450 bc until a late period of decline, finally ending around 1100 bc.minoan buildings often had flat, tiled roofs; plaster, wood or flagstone floors, and stood two to three stories high. lower walls were typically constructed of stone and rubble .
a standard lime mortar has about 60-70% of the embodied energy of a cement mortar. it is also considered to be more environmentally friendly because of its ability, through carbonation, to re-absorb its own weight in carbon dioxide compensating for that given off during burning .