the history of modems is the attempt at increasing the bit rate over a fixed bandwidth and therefore a fixed maximum symbol rate , leading to increasing bits per symbol. for example, the v.29 specifies 4 bits per symbol, at a symbol rate of 2,400 baud, giving an effective bit rate of 9,600 bits per second.
machinability rating= speed of machining the workpiece giving 60min tool life / speed of machining the standard metal machinability ratings can be used in conjunction with the taylor tool life equation, =, in order to determine cutting speeds or tool life. it is known that b1112 has a tool life of 60 minutes at a cutting speed of 100 sfpm .
mixing mechanisms. in powder two different dimensions in the mixing process can be determined: convective mixing and intensive mixing. in the case of convective mixing material in the mixer is transported from one location to another. this type of mixing leads to a less ordered state inside the mixer, the components that must be mixed are .
dimensionless numbers in fluid mechanics are a set of dimensionless quantities that have an important role in analyzing the behavior of fluids.common examples include the reynolds or the mach numbers, which describe as ratios the relative magnitude of fluid and physical system characteristics, such as density, viscosity, speed of sound, flow speed, etc.
the formula for calculating the pdcaas percentage is: mg of limiting amino acid in 1 g of test protein / mg of same amino acid in 1 g of reference protein x fecal true digestibility percentage. the pdcaas value is different from measuring the quality of protein from the protein efficiency ratio per and the biological value bv methods.
air pollutant concentrations, as measured or as calculated by air pollution dispersion modeling, must often be converted or corrected to be expressed as required by the regulations issued by various governmental agencies. regulations that define and limit the concentration of pollutants in the ambient air or in gaseous emissions to the ambient air are issued by various national and state or .
a food with a low glycemic index can have a high carbohydrate content or vice versa; this can be accounted for with the glycemic load gl where gl= gi% x grams of carbohydrate per serving louie jcy, et al., 2015 . consuming carbohydrates with a low glycemic index and calculating carbohydrate intake would produce the most stable blood sugar .
a respirometer is a device used to measure the rate of respiration of a living organism by measuring its rate of exchange of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide. they allow investigation into how factors such as age, or chemicals affect the rate of respiration. respirometers are designed to measure respiration either on the level of a whole animal or plant or on the cellular level.
in chemistry, the burn rate or burning rate is a measure of the linear combustion rate of a compound or substance such as a candle or a solid propellant.it is measured in length over time, such as 'mm/second' or 'inches/second'. among the variables affecting burn rate are pressure and temperature.
a pipe is a tubular section or hollow cylinder, usually but not necessarily of circular cross-section, used mainly to convey substances which can flow — liquids and gases , slurries, powders and masses of small solids. it can also be used for structural applications; hollow pipe is far stiffer per unit weight than solid members.. in common usage the words pipe and tube are usually .
astroecology also concerns wastage, such as the leakage of biological matter into space. this will cause an exponential decay of space-based biomass as given by equation 2 , where m biomass 0 is the mass of the original biomass, k is its rate of decay the fraction lost in a unit time and biomass t is the remaining biomass after time t.
terminal ballistics also known as wound ballistics , a sub-field of ballistics, is the study of the behavior and effects of a projectile when it hits and transfers its energy to a target. bullet design and the velocity of impact largely determine the effectiveness of its impact.
ramp is defined as the rate of change in temperature over time, expressed in degrees per second.: 14 the most commonly used process limit is 4 c/s, though many component and solder paste manufacturers specify the value as 2 c/s. many components have a specification where the rise in temperature should not exceed a specified temperature per second, such as 2 c/s.