where neither stone, nor sand and gravel, are available, construction demand is usually satisfied by shipping in aggregate by rail, barge or truck. additionally, demand for aggregates can be partially satisfied through the use of slag and recycled concrete .
the history of nigeria can be traced to prehistoric settlers nigerians living in the area as early as 1100 bc. numerous ancient african civilizations settled in the region that is today nigeria, such as the kingdom of nri, the benin empire, and the oyo empire. islam reached nigeria through the borno empire between 1068 bc and hausa states around 1385 ad during the 11th century, while .
the 50% devaluation of the west african cfa franc in january, 1994 boosted exports of livestock, cowpeas, onions, and the products of niger's small cotton industry. exports of cattle to neighboring nigeria, as well as groundnuts and their oil remain the primary non-mineral exports.
it was reported that in the late 1980s, the mineral industry lacked importance given that it contributed less than 0.2 percent of ethiopia's gdp. mining for gold is a key development sector in the country. gold export, which was just us$5 million in 2001, has recorded a large increase to us$602 million in 2012.
nationalization of the oil sector was also precipitated by nigeria's desire to join opec, which was encouraging member states to acquire 51% stakes and become increasingly involved in the oil sector. although the nigerian government had maintained involvement in the industry prior to 1971, this was accomplished mainly through business deals on concessions of the foreign firms in operation.
aminu dantata born 1931 is a nigerian businessman and philanthropist who is one of the promoters of kano state foundation, an endowment fund that supported educational initiatives and provided grants to small-scale entrepreneurs in kano. he is the head of a group of companies that manages his real estate and other business ventures.
mining in the gambia, which is limited to the production of clay, laterite, sand and gravel, silica sand, and zircon, does not play a significant role in the gambian economy.. legal framework. the department of state for trade, industry, and employment is the government entity responsible for the administration of the mining sector. a new mineral and mining law proposed in 2001 was still under .
consequently, the mining sector of the industry is dominated by large, often multinational, companies, most of them publicly listed. it can be argued that what is referred to as the 'mining industry' is actually two sectors, one specializing in exploration for new resources and the other in mining those resources.