fluid catalytic cracking fcc is one of the most important conversion processes used in petroleum refineries.it is widely used to convert the high-boiling, high-molecular weight hydrocarbon fractions of petroleum crude oils into more valuable gasoline, olefinic gases, and other products. cracking of petroleum hydrocarbons was originally done by thermal cracking, which has been almost .
froth flotation depends on the selective adhesion of air bubbles to mineral surfaces in a mineral/water slurry. the air bubbles will attach to more hydrophobic particles. the attachment of the bubbles to the surface is determined by the interfacial energies between the solid, liquid, and gas phases.
generally, kaolin deposits have been covered with colored sequences of sand. in some quarries, we can observe red, green and some times black sands. the black color might be due to the existence of pyrite and organic materials.
loperamide, sold under the brand name imodium, among others, is a medication used to decrease the frequency of diarrhea. it is often used for this purpose in gastroenteritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and short bowel syndrome. it is not recommended for those with blood in the stool. the medication is taken by mouth. common side effects include abdominal pain, constipation, sleepiness .
the concept of ionic strength was first introduced by lewis and randall in 1921 while describing the activity coefficients of strong electrolytes. the ionic strength of a solution is a measure of the concentration of ions in that solution. ionic compounds, when dissolved in water, dissociate into ions.
precipitation reactions can be used for making pigments, removing salts from water in water treatment, and in classical qualitative inorganic analysis.. precipitation is also useful to isolate the products of a reaction during workup.ideally, the product of the reaction is insoluble in the reaction solvent.
streptomycin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections. this includes tuberculosis, mycobacterium avium complex, endocarditis, brucellosis, burkholderia infection, plague, tularemia, and rat bite fever. for active tuberculosis it is often given together with isoniazid, rifampicin, and pyrazinamide. it is given by injection into a vein or muscle.
sedimentation is a physical water treatment process using gravity to remove suspended solids from water. solid particles entrained by the turbulence of moving water may be removed naturally by sedimentation in the still water of lakes and oceans. settling basins are ponds constructed for the purpose of removing entrained solids by sedimentation. clarifiers are tanks built with mechanical means for continuous removal of solids being deposited by sedimentation. clarification does not remove dissol
soil is said to be formed when organic matter has accumulated and colloids are washed downward, leaving deposits of clay, humus, iron oxide, carbonate, and gypsum, producing a distinct layer called the b horizon. this is a somewhat arbitrary definition as mixtures of sand, silt, clay and humus will support biological and agricultural activity .
below 100 c 212 f , exposure to dry air will slowly remove liquid water from the kaolin. the end-state for this transformation is referred to as 'leather dry'. between 100 c and about 550 c 1,022 f , any remaining liquid water is expelled from kaolinite. the end state for this transformation is referred to as 'bone dry'.
affinity chromatography is a method of separating biochemical mixture based on a highly specific interaction between antigen and antibody, enzyme and substrate, receptor and ligand, or protein and nucleic acid. it is a type of chromatographic laboratory technique used for purifying biological molecules within a mixture by exploiting molecular properties, e.g. protein can be eluted by ligand .