when high strength is required, an alloy steel such as nickel, nickel-chromium or chromium-vanadium steel is used. shafts are generally formed by hot rolling and finished to size by cold ding or turning and grinding. standard sizes. source: machine shafts. up to 25 mm steps of 0.5 mm; transmission shafts. 25 mm to 60 mm with 5 mm steps
a mass balance, also called a material balance, is an application of conservation of mass to the analysis of physical systems. by accounting for material entering and leaving a system, mass flows can be identified which might have been unknown, or difficult to measure without this technique. the exact conservation law used in the analysis of the system depends on the context of the problem .
protein purification is a series of processes intended to isolate one or a few proteins from a complex mixture, usually cells, tissues or whole organisms. protein purification is vital for the characterization of the function, structure and interactions of the protein of interest. the purification process may separate the protein and non-protein parts of the mixture, and finally separate the desired protein from all other proteins. separation of one protein from all others is typically the most
creep or plastic deformation happens when subjected to intra-oral stresses such as chewing or grinding. creep causes the amalgam to flow and protrudes from the margin of the cavity forming unsupported edges. ‘ditch’ is formed around the margins of the amalgam restoration after fracture due to amalgam creep at the occlusal margins.
spark testing. spark testing is a method of determining the general classification of ferrous materials. it normally entails taking a piece of metal, usually scrap, and applying it to a grinding wheel in order to observe the sparks emitted. these sparks can be compared to a chart or to sparks from a known test sample to determine the classification.
electroless nickel plating or en plating is a chemical process that deposits an even layer of nickel-phosphorus or nickel-boron alloy on the surface of a solid substrate, like metal or plastic. the process involves dipping the substrate in a water solution containing nickel salt and a suitable reducing agent .
in video games, grinding is performing repetitive tasks, usually for a gameplay advantage or loot but in some cases for purely aesthetic or cosmetic benefits. many video games use different tactics to implement, or reduce, the amount of grinding in the gameplay. the general use of grinding is for ' experience points ', or to improve a character .
the nickel–iron battery nife battery is a rechargeable battery having nickel iii oxide-hydroxide positive plates and iron negative plates, with an electrolyte of potassium hydroxide.the active materials are held in nickel-plated steel tubes or perforated pockets. it is a very robust battery which is tolerant of abuse, overcharge, overdischarge, and short-circuiting and can have very .
more often than machining, water-jet or laser, grinding is a preferred and economical method for forming nickel alloy components to shape and finish. due to the hardness of the abrasives used, the grinding wheels are not as affected by the material work hardening and remain sharp and durable.
the solid-state reaction route is the most widely used method for the preparation of polycrystalline solids from a mixture of solid starting materials. solids do not react together at room temperature over normal time scales and it is necessary to heat them to much higher temperatures, often to 1000 to 1500 c in order for the reaction to occur at an appreciable rate.
the long harbour nickel processing plant is a canadian nickel concentrate processing facility located in long harbour, newfoundland and labrador. operated by vale limited, construction on the plant started in april 2009 and operations began in 2014. construction costs were in excess of cad $4.25 billion.
abrasive flow machining afm , also known as abrasive flow deburring or extrude honing, is an interior surface finishing process characterized by flowing an abrasive-laden fluid through a workpiece. this fluid is typically very viscous, having the consistency of putty, or dough.