covance inc. is a contract research organization headquartered in princeton, new jersey, providing nonclinical, preclinical, clinical and commercialization services to pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. the company is owned by labcorp and employs more than 50,000 people in over 60 countries. according to its website, it is one of the largest companies of its kind in the world, with annual revenues of over $2 billion. it claims to provide the world's largest central laboratory network.
in mathematical optimization and related fields, relaxation is a modeling strategy.a relaxation is an approximation of a difficult problem by a nearby problem that is easier to solve. a solution of the relaxed problem provides information about the original problem. for example, a linear programming relaxation of an integer programming problem removes the integrality constraint and so allows .
a floatplane is a type of seaplane with one or more slender floats mounted under the fuselage to provide buoyancy.by contrast, a flying boat uses its fuselage for buoyancy. either type of seaplane may also have landing gear suitable for land, making the vehicle an amphibious aircraft. british usage is to call 'floatplanes' 'seaplanes' rather than use the term 'seaplane' to refer to both .
simulation-based optimization integrates optimization techniques into simulation analysis. because of the complexity of the simulation, the objective function may become difficult and expensive to evaluate.. once a system is mathematically modeled, computer-based simulations provide information about its behavior.
mathematical optimization alternatively spelt optimisation or mathematical programming is the selection of a best element with regard to some criterion from some set of available alternatives. optimization problems of sorts arise in all quantitative disciplines from computer science and engineering to operations research and economics, and the development of solution methods has been of .
initial public offering ipo or stock market launch is a type of public offering in which shares of a company are sold to institutional investors and usually also retail individual investors. an ipo is underwritten by one or more investment banks, who also arrange for the shares to be listed on one or more stock exchanges.through this process, colloquially known as floating, or going public .
the vehicle routing problem vrp is a combinatorial optimization and integer programming problem which asks 'what is the optimal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles to traverse in order to deliver to a given set of customers?'. it generalises the well-known travelling salesman problem tsp . it first appeared in a paper by george dantzig and john ramser in 1959, in which first algorithmic .
in mathematical optimization, dantzig 's simplex algorithm or simplex method is a popular algorithm for linear programming. the name of the algorithm is derived from the concept of a simplex and was suggested by t. s. motzkin. simplices are not actually used in the method, but one interpretation of it is that it operates on simplicial cones .
sensory deprivation or perceptual isolation is the deliberate reduction or removal of stimuli from one or more of the senses. simple devices such as blindfolds or hoods and earmuffs can cut off sight and hearing, while more complex devices can also cut off the sense of smell, touch , taste, thermoception heat-sense , and the 'feeling' of gravity .
hydrological optimization applies mathematical optimization techniques such as dynamic programming, linear programming, integer programming, or quadratic programming to water-related problems.these problems may be for surface water, groundwater, or the combination.the work is interdisciplinary, and may be done by hydrologists, civil engineers, environmental engineers, and operations researchers
mathematical optimization alternatively spelled optimisation or mathematical programming is the selection of a best element with regard to some criterion from some set of available alternatives. optimization problems of sorts arise in all quantitative disciplines from computer science and engineering to operations research and economics, and the development of solution methods has been of .
in artificial intelligence ai , an evolutionary algorithm ea is a subset of evolutionary computation, a generic population-based metaheuristic optimization algorithm.an ea uses mechanisms inspired by biological evolution, such as reproduction, mutation, recombination, and selection. candidate solutions to the optimization problem play the role of individuals in a population, and the fitness .
superoptimization is the process of automatically finding the optimal code sequence for one loop-free sequence of instructions. it is performed in and by a type of computer software termed a compiler.real-world compilers generally cannot produce genuinely optimal code. while most standard compiler optimizations only improve code partly, a superoptimizer's goal is to find the optimal sequence .
fulmer research institute was founded in 1945 as a uk contract research and development organization specializing in materials technology and related areas of physics and chemistry. it was modelled on american contract research companies such as battelle memorial institute and the mellon institute of industrial research.
topology optimization to is a mathematical method that optimizes material layout within a given design space, for a given set of loads, boundary conditions and constraints with the goal of maximizing the performance of the system. to is different from shape optimization and sizing optimization in the sense that the design can attain any shape within the design space, instead of dealing with .
operations research british english: operational research or is a discipline that deals with the application of advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions. further, the term operational analysis is used in the british and some british commonwealth military as an intrinsic part of capability development, management and assurance. in particular, operational analysis forms .
lionsolver originates from research principles in reactive search optimization advocating the use of self-tuning schemes acting while a software system is running. learning and intelligent optimization refers to the integration of online machine learning schemes into the optimization software, so that it becomes capable of learning from its previous runs and from human feedback.
the duality gap is zero if and only if strong duality holds. otherwise the gap is strictly positive and weak duality holds. in computational optimization, another 'duality gap' is often reported, which is the difference in value between any dual solution and the value of a feasible but suboptimal iterate for the primal problem.
his book flotation new york: mcg-hill, 1932, revised edition 1957 was the first definitive hand-book for the process. in 1941, the montana school of mines bestowed on him the honorary degree of doctor of science for his research on flotation. the book 'principles of mineral dressing' authored by gaudin is still the basic book for all .
the school of chemical and metallurgical engineering is one of seven schools in the university of the witwatersrand's faculty of engineering and the built environment. the school offers 4-year undergraduate degrees and post-graduate degrees in chemical and metallurgical engineering.