kosovo has large reserves of lead, zinc, silver, nickel, cobalt, copper, iron and bauxite. the nation has the 5th largest lignite reserves in the world and the 3rd in europe. the directorate for mines and minerals and the world bank estimated that kosovo had €13.5 billion worth of minerals in 2005.
the processing of such metals has also developed in some regions of kosovo, such as: processing of gold and silver in prizren, in amounts of approximately 20 kg au monthly and 1,000 kg ag monthly, also the production of nickel-cadmium batteries in prizren, at about 100 tons cd per year. iron, manganese, copper, uranium, titanium, thorium
cementation of copper is a common example. copper ions in solution, often from an ore leaching process, are precipitated out of solution in the presence of solid iron. the iron oxidizes, and the copper ions are reduced through the transfer of electrons. the reaction is spontaneous because copper is higher on the galvanic series than iron.
the economy of kosovo is a transition economy. kosovo was the poorest province of the former yugoslavia with a modern economy established only after a series of federal development subsidies in 1960s and 1970s. during the 1990s abolition of province's autonomous institutions followed by poor economic policies, international sanctions, little access to external trade and finance, and ethnic .
archaeology of kosovo as a field of study and research was started in the second half of the 20th century. kosovo's field of archaeology has developed in tandem with the historical study, studies of ancient authors' sources, classic philological studies, theological data research, topographic studies and ground survey, analysis of toponyms, deciphering of epigraphic and historiographic data.
kosovo has several industry sectors, as the most developed ones are: ferrous and non-ferrous, metallurgy and mining. in northern kosovo, near the town of mitrovica, sits a huge dilapidated industrial site known as the trepca mining complex. during the 1980s, it employed 20,000 workers and accounted for 70 percent of all yugoslavia's mineral wealth.