a pantograph greek roots παντ- 'all, every' and γραφ- 'to write', from their original use for copying writing is a mechanical linkage connected in a manner based on parallelograms so that the movement of one pen, in tracing an image, produces identical movements in a second pen. if a line ding is traced by the first point, an identical, enlarged, or miniaturized copy will be dn .
a machinist is a tradesperson who machines using hand tools and machine tools to create or modify a part that is made of metal, plastics, or wood, although plastics or wood machining is rarely manufactured by machinists as those materials require lesser skill and almost all the work performed by a machinist is done on metal. a machinist is to metal what a carpenter or cabinet maker is to wood.
a precision tapered reamer is used to make a tapered hole to later receive a tapered pin. a taper pin is a self tightening device due to the shallow angle of the taper. they may be driven into the tapered hole such that removal can only be done with a hammer and punch.they are sized by a number sequence for example, a no.4 reamer would use no.4 taper pins .
bevel gears are gears where the axes of the two shafts intersect and the tooth-bearing faces of the gears themselves are conically shaped. bevel gears are most often mounted on shafts that are 90 degrees apart, but can be designed to work at other angles as well. the pitch surface of bevel gears is a cone. bevel gear on roller shutter door. independently from the operating angle, the gear axes must intersect bevel gear lifts floodgate by means of central screw. bevel ring gear on the rear wheel
honing is an abrasive machining process that produces a precision surface on a metal workpiece by scrubbing an abrasive grinding stone or grinding wheel against it along a controlled path. honing is primarily used to improve the geometric form of a surface, but can also improve the surface finish.. typical applications are the finishing of cylinders for internal combustion engines, air bearing .
animation of the diffusion welding process. diffusion bonding or diffusion welding is a solid-state welding technique used in metalworking, capable of joining similar and dissimilar metals. it operates on the principle of solid-state diffusion, wherein the atoms of two solid, metallic surfaces intersperse themselves over time.
the cylindrical gear tooth profile corresponds to an involute i.e. a triangle wave projected on the circumference of a circle , whereas the bevel gear tooth profile is an octoid definition needed i.e. a triangle wave projected on the normal path of a circle of a sphere .
a collet / ˈ k ɒ l ɪ t / is a subtype of chuck that forms a collar around an object to be held and exerts a strong clamping force on the object when it is tightened, usually by means of a tapered outer collar. it may be used to hold a workpiece or a tool. an external collet is a sleeve with a normally cylindrical inner surface and a conical outer surface. the collet can be squeezed .
a lathe center, often shortened to center, is a tool that has been ground to a point to accurately position a workpiece on an axis. they usually have an included angle of 60 , but in heavy machining situations an angle of 75 is used.
the original trapezoidal thread form, and still probably the one most commonly encountered worldwide, with a 29 thread angle, is the acme thread form / ˈ æ k m iː / ak-mee . the acme thread was developed in 1894 as a profile well suited to power screws that has various advantages over the square thread , note 1 which had been the form of choice until then.
cylindrical thrust roller bearings consist of small cylindrical rollers arranged flat with their axes pointing to the axis of the bearing. they give very good carrying capacity and are cheap, but tend to wear due to the differences in radial speed and friction which is higher than with ball bearings.
often a part will be roughed and semifinished in the machining operation, then heat treated, and finally, finished by internal cylindrical grinding. the limitations of boring in terms of its geometric accuracy form, position and the hardness of the workpiece have been shrinking in recent decades as machining technology continues to advance.
the grinding media are usually made of high-chromium steel. the smaller grades are occasionally cylindrical 'pebs' rather than spherical. there exists a speed of rotation the 'critical speed' at which the contents of the mill would simply ride over the roof of the mill due to centrifugal action.