electron-beam machining ebm is a process where high-velocity electrons concentrated into a narrow beam are directed toward the work piece, creating heat and vaporizing the material.ebm can be used for very precise cutting or boring of a wide variety of metals. surface finish is better and kerf width is narrower than those for other thermal cutting processes.
similarly, in rotating-cutter metalworking machine tools such as milling machines and drill presses , the spindle is the shaft to which the tool such as a drill bit or milling cutter is attached for example, via a chuck . varieties of spindles include grinding spindles, electric spindles, machine tool spindles, low-speed spindles, high .
a coated abrasive is an abrasive grain bonded to a flexible substrate using adhesives. common substrates are paper, cloth, vulcanized fiber, and plastic films and come in grit sizes range from very coarse 2 mm to ultrafine submicrometre . the international standard for coated abrasives is iso 6344.
galling is a form of wear caused by adhesion between sliding surfaces. when a material galls, some of it is pulled with the contacting surface, especially if there is a large amount of force compressing the surfaces together. galling is caused by a combination of friction and adhesion between the surfaces, followed by slipping and tearing of .
the boring bar is the protruding arm of the machine that holds the cutting tool s , and must be very rigid. because of the factors just mentioned, deep-hole drilling and deep-hole boring are inherently challenging areas of practice that demand special tooling and techniques. nevertheless, technologies have been developed that produce deep holes .
abrasive jet machining ajm , also known as abrasive micro-blasting, pencil blasting and micro-abrasive blasting, is an abrasive blasting machining process that uses abrasives propelled by a high velocity gas to erode material from the workpiece. common uses include cutting heat-sensitive, brittle, thin, or hard materials. specifically it is used to cut intricate shapes or form specific edge .
laser beam machining lbm is a non conventional machining manufacturing process, a form of machining, in which a laser is directed towards the work piece for machining. this process uses thermal energy to remove material from metallic or nonmetallic surfaces. the high frequency of monochromatic light will fall on the surface then heating, melting and vaporizing of the material take place due .